Content Supplied by NHS Choices

Cancer

Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body begin to reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue.

Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs.

Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis.

There are over 200 different types of cancer, each with its own methods of diagnosis and treatment. You can find out more about specific types of cancer by using the links on this page.

Spotting signs of cancer

Changes to your body's normal processes or symptoms that are out of the ordinary can sometimes be an early sign of cancer.

For example, a lump that suddenly appears on your body, unexplained bleeding or changes to your bowel habits are all symptoms that need to be checked by a doctor.

In many cases, your symptoms won't be related to cancer and will be caused by other, non-cancerous health conditions. However, it's still important for you to see your GP so that they can investigate your symptoms.

Read more about the signs and symptoms of cancer.

Reducing your risk of cancer

Making some simple changes to your lifestyle can significantly reduce your risk of developing cancer.

For example, healthy eating, taking regular exercise and not smoking will help lower your risk.

Read more about how a healthy lifestyle can help reduce your chances of developing cancer.

How common is cancer?

Cancer is a very common condition. In 2011, almost 331,500 people in the UK were diagnosed with cancer.

More than one in three people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime.

In the UK, the four most common types of cancer are:

In 2011, these types of cancer accounted for over half (53%) of all new cases.

Cancer treatment

Surgery is the primary treatment option for most types of cancer, because solid tumours can usually be surgically removed.

Two other commonly used treatment methods are chemotherapy (powerful cancer-killing medication) and radiotherapy (the controlled use of high-energy X-rays).

Waiting times

Accurately diagnosing cancer can take weeks or months. As cancer often develops slowly, over several years, waiting for a few weeks won't usually impact on the effectiveness of treatment.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has produced referral guidelines for suspected cancer.

You shouldn't have to wait more than two weeks to see a specialist if your GP suspects you have cancer and urgently refers you.

In cases where cancer has been confirmed, you shouldn't have to wait more than 31 days from the decision to treat to the start of treatment.

In 2012-13, 95.5% of people who were urgently referred for suspected cancer were seen by a specialist within 14 days of referral.

In the same period, 98.4% of people receiving their first treatment for cancer began their treatment within 31 days. For breast cancer, over 99% of people began their treatment within 31 days of being diagnosed.

Cancer services

Find local cancer support services

Find specialist cancer hospitals

Find cancer support services for women



Content Supplied by NHS Choices

Cancer

It is important to be aware of any unexplained changes to your body, such as the sudden appearance of a lump, blood in your urine or a change to your usual bowel habits.

It's important to be aware of any unexplained changes to your body, such as the sudden appearance of a lump, blood in your urine or a change to your usual bowel habits.

These symptoms are often caused by other, non-cancerous illnesses, but it's important to see your GP so they can investigate.

Other potential signs and symptoms of cancer are outlined below. 

Lump in your breast

See your GP if you notice a lump in your breast, or if you have a lump that's rapidly increasing in size elsewhere on your body.

Your GP will refer you to a specialist for tests if they think you may have cancer.

Coughing, chest pain and breathlessness

Visit your GP if you've had a cough for more than three weeks.

Symptoms such as shortness of breath or chest pain may be a sign of an acute (severe) condition, such as pneumonia. See your GP straight away if you experience these types of symptoms.

Changes in bowel habits

See your GP if you've experienced one of the changes listed below and it's lasted for more than a few weeks:

  • blood in your stools
  • diarrhoea or constipation for no obvious reason
  • a feeling of not having fully emptied your bowels after going to the toilet
  • pain in your abdomen (stomach) or your anus (back passage)
  • persistent bloating

Bleeding

You should also see your GP if you have any unexplained bleeding, such as:

  • blood in your urine
  • bleeding between periods
  • blood from your back passage
  • blood when you cough
  • blood in your vomit

Moles

See your GP if you have a mole that:

  • has an irregular or asymmetrical shape
  • has an irregular border with jagged edges
  • has more than one colour (it may be flecked with brown, black, red, pink or white)
  • is bigger than 7mm in diameter
  • is itchy, crusting or bleeding

Any of the above changes means there's a chance you have malignant melanoma (skin cancer).

Unexplained weight loss

You should also see your GP if you have lost a lot of weight over the last couple of months that can't be explained by changes to your diet, exercise or stress.

More information

The following links have more useful information about cancer.

Macmillan: signs and symptoms of cancer

Cancer Research UK: cancer symptoms checker

NICE guidance: referral for suspected cancer



Content Supplied by NHS Choices

Cancer

The list below is a combination of the and brand names of medicines available in the UK. Each name provides a link to a separate website (Medicine Guides)

The list below is a combination of the and brand names of medicines available in the UK. Each name provides a link to a separate website (Medicine Guides) where you can find detailed information about the medicine. The information is provided as part of an on-going medicine information project between NHS Direct, Datapharm Communications Ltd and other organisations.

The medicines listed below hold a UK licence to allow their use in the treatment of this condition. medicines are not included.

The list is continually reviewed and updated but it may not be complete as the project is still in progress and guides for new medicines may still be in development.

If you are taking one of these medicines for a different condition, or your medicine for this condition is not mentioned here at all, speak to your prescriber, GP or pharmacist, or contact NHS Direct on 0845 46 47.47.

 

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