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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK, with over 40,000 new cases diagnosed every year.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK, with over 40,000 new cases diagnosed every year.

Prostate cancer usually develops slowly, so there may be no signs you have it for many years.

Symptoms often only become apparent when your prostate is large enough to affect the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis).

When this happens, you may notice things like an increased need to urinate, straining while urinating and a feeling your bladder has not fully emptied.

However, these signs do not mean you have prostate cancer. It is more likely they are caused by something else, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (also known as BPH or prostate enlargement).

Read more about the symptoms of prostate cancer.

Why does prostate cancer happen?

The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. However, a number of things can increase your risk of developing the condition.

The chances of developing prostate cancer increase as you get older. Most cases develop in men aged 50 or older.

For reasons not yet understood, prostate cancer is more common in men of African-Caribbean or African descent, and less common in men of Asian descent.

Men who have first degree male relatives (such as a father or brother) affected by prostate cancer are at slightly increased risk as well.

Read more about the causes of prostate cancer.

Tests for prostate cancer

There is no single test for prostate cancer. All the tests used to help diagnose the condition have benefits and risks, which your doctor should discuss with you.

The most commonly used tests for prostate cancer are blood tests, a physical examination of your prostate (known as a digital rectal examination or DRE) and a biopsy.

The blood test, known as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, measures the level of PSA and may help detect early prostate cancer. Men are not routinely offered PSA tests to screen for prostate cancer as results can be unreliable.

This is because the PSA blood test is not specific to prostate cancer. PSA can be raised due to a large non-cancerous growth of the prostate (BPH), a urinary tract infection or inflammation of the prostate as well as prostate cancer. Raised PSA levels also cannot tell a doctor whether a man has life-threatening prostate cancer or not. This means that a raised PSA can lead to unnecessary tests and treatment.

However, you can ask to be tested for prostate cancer once the benefits and risks have been explained to you.

Read more about diagnosing prostate cancer and PSA screening for prostate cancer.

How is prostate cancer treated?

For many men with prostate cancer, treatment is not immediately necessary.

If the cancer is at an early stage and not causing symptoms, a policy of "watchful waiting" or "active surveillance" may be adopted. This involves carefully monitoring your condition.

Some cases of prostate cancer can be cured if treated in the early stages. Treatments include surgically removing the prostate, radiotherapy and hormone therapy.

Some cases are only diagnosed at a later stage when the cancer has spread. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, typically the bones, it cannot be cured and treatment is focused on prolonging life and relieving symptoms.

All treatment options carry the risk of significant side effects, including erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. For this reason, many men choose to delay treatment until there is a risk the cancer might spread.

Read more about treating prostate cancer.

Living with prostate cancer

As prostate cancer usually progresses very slowly, you can live for decades without symptoms or needing treatment.

Nevertheless, it can have an effect on your life. As well as causing physical problems such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence, a diagnosis of prostate cancer can understandably make you feel anxious or depressed.

You may find it beneficial to talk about the condition with your family, friends, a family doctor and other men with prostate cancer.

Financial support is also available if prostate cancer reduces your ability to work.

Read more about living with prostate cancer.



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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer normally causes no symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.

Prostate cancer does not normally cause symptoms until the cancer has grown large enough to put pressure on the urethra.

This normally results in problems associated with urination. Symptoms can include:

  • needing to urinate more frequently, often during the night
  • needing to rush to the toilet
  • difficulty in starting to urinate or pee (hesitancy)
  • straining or taking a long time while urinating
  • weak flow
  • feeling that your bladder has not emptied fully

These symptoms shouldn’t be ignored but they do not mean you definitely have prostate cancer. Many men's prostates get larger as they get older due to a non-cancerous condition known as prostate enlargement or benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Symptoms that the cancer may have spread include bone and back pain, a loss of appetite, pain in the testicles, and unexplained weight loss.

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Prostate cancer

It is not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, although there are some things that can increase your risk of developing the condition.

It is not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, although a number of things can increase your risk of developing the condition.

These include:

  • Age – risk rises as you get older, most cases are diagnosed in men over 50 years of age.
  • Ethnic group – prostate cancer is more common among men of African-Caribbean and African descent, it is relatively rare among men of Asian and South and Central American descent.
  • Family history – having a close male relative – such as a brother, father or uncle – who has had prostate cancer seems to increase the risk of you developing it. Research also shows that having a close female relative who developed breast cancer may also increase your risk of developing prostate cancer. 
  • Obesity – recent research suggests there may be a link between obesity and prostate cancer.
  • Exercise  men who regularly exercise have also been found to be at lower risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • Diet  research is ongoing into the links between diet and prostate cancer. There is evidence a diet high in calcium is linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.

In addition, some research has shown prostate cancer rates appear lower in men who eat foods containing certain nutrients including lycopene, found in tomatoes and other red fruit, and selenium, found in brazil nuts.

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Prostate cancer

If you have symptoms that could be caused by prostate cancer, you should visit your GP.

If you have symptoms that could be caused by prostate cancer, you should visit your GP.

There is no single, definitive test for prostate cancer, so your GP will discuss the pros and cons of the various tests with you to try to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

Your doctor is likely to:

  • ask for a urine sample to check for infection
  • take a blood sample to test your level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  • examine your prostate (digital rectal examination)

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the prostate gland. All men have a small amount of PSA in their blood, and it increases with age.

Prostate cancer can increase the production of PSA, and so a PSA test looks for raised levels of PSA in the blood that may be a sign of the condition in its early stages.

However, PSA testing is not a specific test for prostate cancer. Most men who have prostate cancer will not have a raised PSA level. More than 65% of men with a raised PSA level will not have cancer, as PSA levels rise in all men as they get older.

Read more about PSA screening for prostate cancer.

Digital rectal examination

The next step is a digital rectal examination (DRE), which can be done by your GP.

During a DRE, your GP will insert a lubricated and gloved finger into your rectum. The rectum is close to your prostate gland, so your GP can check to feel if the surface of the gland has changed. This will feel a little uncomfortable but should not be painful.

Prostate cancer can make the gland hard and bumpy. However, in most cases, the cancer causes no changes to the gland and a DRE may not be able to detect the cancer.

DRE is useful in ruling out prostate enlargement caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia, as this causes the gland to feel firm and smooth.

Want to know more?

  • Prostate Cancer UK: DRE.

Biopsy

Your GP will assess your risk of having prostate cancer based on a number of factors, including your PSA levels, the results of your DRE, and your age, family history and ethnic group. If you are at risk, you will be referred to hospital to discuss the options of further tests.

The most commonly used test is a transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS).

During a TRUS biopsy, an ultrasound probe (a machine that uses sound waves to build a picture of the inside of your body) is inserted into your rectum. This allows the doctor or specialist nurse to see exactly where to pass a needle through the wall of your rectum to take small samples of tissue from your prostate.

The procedure can be uncomfortable and sometimes painful so you may be given a local anaesthetic to minimise any discomfort. As with any procedure, there may be complications, including bleeding and infection.

Although it is more reliable than a PSA test, the TRUS biopsy has problems. This is because the location of the cancer is unknown when it is carried out. The doctors can see the prostate using the ultrasound scan but not the tumour(s) if they are present.

For this reason, a TRUS biopsy may miss up to one in five cancers. This means you may need another biopsy if your symptoms persist, or your PSA level continues to rise.

The TRUS biopsy can also find small low-risk cancers that do not need to be treated but which may cause you anxiety. Many men often choose to undergo surgery or radiotherapy that may not benefit them but which causes side-effects, such as incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

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Gleason score

The samples of tissue from the biopsy are studied in a laboratory. If cancerous cells are found, they can be studied further to see how quickly the cancer will spread.

This measure is known as the Gleason score. The lower the score, the less likely the cancer will spread.

  • A Gleason score of six or less means the cancer is unlikely to spread.
  • A Gleason score of seven means there is a moderate chance of the cancer spreading.
  • A Gleason score of eight or above means there is a significant chance the cancer will spread.

Further testing

If there is a significant chance the cancer has spread from your prostate to other parts of the body, further tests may be recommended.

These include:

  • A Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerised tomography (CT) scan – these scans build a detailed picture of the inside of your body.
  • An isotope bone scan – this test uses a small amount of radiation dye injected into the vein, which gradually moves through the bloodstream and collects in the parts of the bone where there are any abnormalities. An isotope bone scan can tell if the cancer has spread to your bones.


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Prostate cancer

There is currently no screening programme for prostate cancer in the UK because it is has not been proven that the benefits would outweigh the risks.

There is currently no screening programme for prostate cancer in the UK because it has not been proven that the benefits would outweigh the risks.

PSA screening

Routinely screening all men to check their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is a controversial subject in the international medical community.

In some countries, all men aged over 50 are recommended to have an annual PSA test. However, this is not the case in the UK.

There are several reasons for this:

  • PSA tests are unreliable and often suggest the presence of prostate cancer when no cancer exists (a false-positive result). This means many men often have invasive and sometimes painful biopsies for no reason.
  • Treating prostate cancer in its early stages can be beneficial, but side effects of the various treatments are potentially so serious that men may choose to delay treatment until it is absolutely necessary.
  • Although screening has been shown to reduce a man’s chance of dying from prostate cancer, it would mean many men getting treated unnecessarily.

One European study has shown deaths from prostate cancer could be reduced by 20% if there was a screening programme, but only one additional life would be saved for every 48 men treated.

As there are many reasons why PSA levels may be high at any one time, researchers are trying to make the PSA test, or a variation of it, more accurate. This includes looking at how PSA levels change over time, and comparing the PSA level to prostate size.

Instead of a national screening programme, there is an informed choice programme on prostate cancer risk management. It aims to give men good information on the pros and cons of a PSA test.

If you are aged over 50 and decide to have your PSA levels tested, your GP will be able to arrange for it to be carried out for free on the NHS.

Should I have a PSA test?

Because the results of the PSA test are not as reliable as doctors would like, other tests and investigations are needed to diagnose prostate cancer. A PSA test cannot identify prostate cancer on its own, and changes in PSA levels alone are not a good reason to start treatment.

If you are going to have a PSA test, it is important you first discuss with your GP whether it is right for you, so you understand what the results might mean.

The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme gives you information on the risks and benefits of the PSA test to help you decide whether or not to have it. 

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Prostate cancer

The treatment you receive for prostate cancer will depend on your individual circumstances.

Staging of prostate cancer

Doctors will use the results of your prostate examination, biopsy and scans to identify the ‘stage’ of your prostate cancer (how far the cancer has spread). The stage of the cancer will determine which types of treatments will be necessary. It is a relatively complex system, reflecting the many varieties of prostate cancer.

Doctors identify the stage of prostate cancer by using the TNM system (Tumour, Nodes, Metastases):

  • ‘T’ describes the tumour: whether it can be felt in a digital rectal examination (DRE), how much cancer was found when the biopsy was done (Gleason score), and if it has spread from the prostate gland into nearby tissues.
  • ‘N’ shows whether your cancer has spread to your lymph nodes where the body fluid lymph is filtered and where cancers often spread first.
  • ‘M’ shows whether your cancer has spread (metastasised) to other parts of your body.

Sometimes a simpler number staging system is used. The stages are:

  • Stage 1 – the cancer is very small and completely within the prostate gland
  • Stage 2 – the cancer is within the prostate gland, but is larger
  • Stage 3 – the cancer has spread from the prostate and may have grown into the tubes that carry semen
  • Stage 4 – the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes or another part of the body, including the bladder, rectum or bones; about 20-30% of cases are diagnosed at this stage 

If prostate cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the chances of survival are generally good. About 90% of men diagnosed at stages 1 or 2 will live at least five more years and 65-90% will live for at least 10 more years.

If you are diagnosed with stage 3 prostate cancer you have a 70-80% of chance of living for at least five more years.

However, if you are diagnosed when your prostate cancer has reached stage 4, then there is only a 30% chance you will live for at least five more years.

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Watchful waiting

If the cancer is in its early stages and not causing symptoms, you may decide to delay treatment, and wait to see if any symptoms of progressive cancer develop. If this happens, pain medication and hormone medication (see below) to control prostate cancer are usually used.

This is often recommended for older men when it is unlikely the cancer will affect their natural life span.

Active surveillance

Active surveillance aims to avoid unnecessary treatment of harmless cancers, while still providing timely treatment for men who need it. 

When they are diagnosed, we know around half to two-thirds of men with low-risk prostate cancer do not need treatment. Surveillance is a safe strategy that provides a period of observation to gather extra information to help men decide whether or not to have treatment.

Active surveillance involves you having regular PSA tests and biopsies to ensure any signs of progression are found as early as possible. If these tests reveal the cancer is likely to spread beyond the prostate, you can then make a decision about further treatment.

About one in three men who undergo surveillance will later have treatment. This does not mean they made the wrong initial decision. Provided delayed treatment is as effective as immediate treatment, they will not have been harmed. They will have delayed any treatment side effects, and they will be reassured their treatment was actually necessary. 

Radical prostatectomy

A radical prostatectomy is the surgical removal of your prostate gland. This treatment is an option for curing localised prostate cancer and locally-advanced prostate cancer.

Like any operation, this surgery carries some risks, and there may be some side effects. These are outlined below.

  • Some men have problems with urinary incontinence. This can range from leaking small drips of urine, to leaking larger amounts. However, for most men, this usually clears up within three to six months of the operation. About two in every 10 men have long-term problems requiring the use of pads.
  • Some men have problems getting an erection (erectile dysfunction). For some men, this improves with time. But around half of men will have long-term problems.
  • In extremely rare cases, problems arising after surgery can be fatal. For example, one in 1,000 men under 65 years old and one in 200 men over 65 will die following a radical prostatectomy.

For many men, having a radical prostatectomy will get rid of the cancer cells. However, for around one in three men, the cancer cells may not be fully removed, and the cancer cells may return some time after the operation.

Studies have shown that radiotherapy after prostate removal surgery may increase the chances of a cure, although research is still being carried out into when it should be used after surgery.

After a radical prostatectomy, you will no longer ejaculate during sex. This means you will not be able to have a child through sexual intercourse. However, you may want to ask your doctors about storing a sperm sample before the operation, so it can be used later for in vitro fertilisation (IVF).

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Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy involves using radiation to kill cancerous cells. This treatment is an option for curing localised prostate cancer and locally-advanced prostate cancer. Radiotherapy can also be used to slow the progression of metastatic prostate cancer and relieve symptoms.

Radiotherapy is normally given as an outpatient at a hospital near you. It is done in short sessions for five days a week, for four to eight weeks. There are short-term and long-term side effects associated with radiotherapy.

Short-term effects of radiotherapy can include:

  • discomfort around the rectum and anus (the opening through which stools pass out of your body)
  • diarrhoea 
  • loss of pubic hair
  • tiredness
  • cystitis – an inflammation of the bladder lining, which can cause you to urinate frequently; urination may be painful.

Possible long-term side effects can include:

  • an inability to obtain an erection – this affects about one- to two-thirds of men
  • urinary incontinence – this affects about one or two in every 10 men
  • back passage problems (diarrhoea, bleeding, discomfort) – these affect between five and 20 in every 100 men

As with radical prostatectomy, there is a one-in-three chance the cancer will return. In these cases, medication is usually used to control the cancer instead of surgery. This is because there is a higher risk of complications from surgery in men who have previously had radiotherapy.

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Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a number of tiny radioactive seeds are surgically implanted into the tumour. It is also known as internal radiotherapy.

This method has the advantage of delivering a high dose of radiation to the prostate, while minimising damage to other tissues. However, the risk of sexual dysfunction and urinary problems is the same as with radiotherapy, although the risk of bowel problems is slightly lower.

Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy is often used in combination with radiotherapy. For example, you may receive hormone therapy before undergoing radiotherapy to increase the chance of a successful treatment. Or hormone therapy may be recommended after radiotherapy to reduce the chances of cancerous cells returning.

Hormone therapy alone should not normally be used to treat localised prostate cancer, but it can be used to slow the progression of advanced prostate cancer and relieve symptoms.

Hormones control the growth of cells in the prostate. In particular, prostate cancer needs the hormone testosterone to grow. The purpose of hormone therapy is to block the effects of testosterone, either by stopping its production or by stopping your body being able to use testosterone.

There are three ways to give hormone therapy:

  • Injections to stop your body making testosterone, called luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists.
  • Tablets to block the effects or reduce the production of testosterone, called anti-androgen treatment.
  • Combined LHRH and anti-androgen treatment.

The main side effects of hormone treatment are caused by their effects on testosterone. They usually go away when treatment stops. They include loss of sex drive and erectile dysfunction (this is more common with LHRH agonists than anti-androgens).

Other possible side effects include:

  • hot flushes
  • sweating
  • weight gain
  • swelling of the breasts

A surgical alternative to hormone therapy is to surgically remove the testicles, called orchidectomy. The operation does not cure prostate cancer, but by removing the testosterone, it controls the growth of the cancer and its symptoms. However, many men prefer to have hormone treatment to block the effects of testosterone.

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Trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

During TURP a special telescope is inserted into your urethra (the tube that carries urine from your bladder to your penis) and pieces of the prostate are removed. This is carried out under general anaesthetic or a spinal anaesthetic (epidural).

This is done to relieve pressure from the urethra in order to treat any problematic symptoms you may have with urination.

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)

HIFU is sometimes used to treat men with localised prostate cancer that has not spread beyond their prostate.

An ultrasound probe inserted into the rectum releases high-frequency sound waves through the wall of the rectum. These sound waves kill cancer cells in the prostate gland by heating them to a high temperature.

The risk of side effects from HIFU is usually lower than other treatments.

However, possible effects can include impotence (in five to 10 in every 100 men) or urinary incontinence (in less than one in every 100 men). Back passage problems are rare.

Fistulas (an abnormal connection between the urinary system and rectum) are also rare, affecting less than one in every 200 men. This is because the treatment targets the cancer area only and not the whole prostate. 

However, HIFU treatment is still going through clinical trials for prostate cancer. It is not widely available and its long-term effectiveness has not yet been conclusively proven.

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Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is a method of killing cancer cells by freezing them. It is sometimes used to treat men with localised prostate cancer that has not spread beyond their prostate gland.

It is still undergoing clinical trials for prostate cancer and its long-term effectiveness has not yet been conclusively proven.

Tiny probes called cryoneedles are inserted into the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum. They freeze the prostate gland and kill the cancer cells, but some normal cells also die.

The aim is to kill cancer cells while causing as little damage as possible to healthy cells. The side effects of cryotherapy can include:

  • erectile dysfunction – this can affect between two and nine in every 10 men
  • incontinence – this affects less than one in 20 men

It is rare for cryotherapy to cause back passage problems or fistulas.

Treating advanced prostate cancer

If the cancer has reached an advanced stage, it is no longer possible to cure it. However, it may be possible to slow its progression, prolong your life, and relieve symptoms.

Treatment options include:

  • radiotherapy
  • hormone treatment
  • chemotherapy

If the cancer has spread to your bones, medicines called bisphosphonates may be used. Bisphosphonates help reduce bone pain and bone loss.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is mainly used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic prostate cancer) and which is not responding to hormone therapy.

Chemotherapy destroys cancer cells by interfering with the way in which they multiply. Chemotherapy does not cure prostate cancer, but can keep it under control and reduce symptoms (such as pain) so everyday life is less affected.

The main side effects of chemotherapy are caused by their effects on healthy cells, such as immune cells. They include infections, tiredness, hair loss, sore mouth, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Many of these side effects can be prevented or controlled with other medicines, which your doctor can prescribe for you.

Steroids

Steroid tablets are used when hormone therapy no longer works because the cancer is resistant to it. This is called hormone-refractory cancer. Steroids can be used to try to shrink the tumour and stop it from growing. The most effective steroid treatment is dexamethasone.

Other medical treatments

There are a number of new medications that could be used if hormones and chemotherapy fail. Your medical team will be able to tell you if these are suitable and available for you.

Deciding against treatment

As many of the treatments above have unpleasant side effects that can affect your quality of life, you may decide against treatment. Especially if you are at an age when you feel that treating the cancer is unlikely to significantly extend your life expectancy.

This is entirely your decision, and your MDT will respect it.

If you decide not to have treatment, your GP will still give you support and pain relief. This is called palliative care. Support is also available for your family and friends.

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Prostate cancer

Depending of the type of prostate cancer you have, your life may be affected in different ways.

Impact on everyday activities

If you have no symptoms, prostate cancer should have little or no effect on your everyday activities. You should be able to work, care for your family, carry on your usual social and leisure activities and look after yourself. However, you may be understandably worried about your future. This may make you feel anxious or depressed, and affect your sleep.

If your prostate cancer progresses, you may not feel well enough to do all the things you used to. After an operation or other treatment, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy, you will probably feel tired and need time to recover.

If you have advanced prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of your body, you may have symptoms that slow you down and make it difficult to do things. You may have to reduce your working hours or stop working altogether.

Whatever stage your prostate cancer has reached, try to give yourself time to do the things you enjoy and spend time with those who care about you.

Complications of prostate cancer

Erection problems

If you have erectile dysfunction, speak to your GP. It may be possible to treat you with a type of medicine known as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5). PDE5s work by increasing the blood supply to your penis.

The most commonly used PDE5 is sildenafil (Viagra). Other PDE5s are available if sildenafil is not effective.

Another alternative is a device called a vacuum pump. It is a simple tube connected to a pump. You place your penis in the tube and then pump out all the air. This creates a vacuum which causes the blood to rush to your penis. You then place a rubber ring around the base of your penis. This keeps the blood in place and allows you to maintain an erection for around 30 minutes.

Urinary incontinence

If your urinary incontinence is mild, you may be able to control it by learning some simple exercises. Pelvic-floor exercises can strengthen your control over your bladder.

To carry out pelvic-floor exercises:

  • Sit or lie comfortably with your knees slightly apart.
  • Squeeze or lift at the front as if you were trying to stop the passage of urine, then squeeze or lift at the back as if you were trying to stop the passage of wind.
  • Hold this contraction for as long as you can (at least two seconds, increasing up to 10 as you improve).
  • Relax for the same amount of time before repeating.

If your urinary incontinence is more severe it may be possible to treat it with surgery. This would involve implanting an artificial sphincter – a sphincter is a muscle used to control the bladder.

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Relationships

Being diagnosed with prostate cancer often brings families and friends closer, although it can put pressure on relationships too.

Most people want to help, though they may not know what to do. A few people find it hard to talk to someone with prostate cancer, and may try to avoid them. Being open and honest about how you feel and what your family and friends can do to help may put others at ease. But do not feel shy about telling people you need some time to yourself, if that is what you need.

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Talk to others

If you have questions, your doctor or nurse may be able to reassure you, or you may find it helpful to talk to a trained counsellor, psychologist or specialist telephone helpline. Your GP surgery will have information on these.

Some men find it helpful to talk to other men with prostate cancer at a local support group or through an internet chat room.

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Money and financial support

If you have to reduce or stop work because of your prostate cancer, you may find it hard to cope financially. If you have prostate cancer or are caring for someone with prostate cancer, you may be entitled to financial support.

  • If you have a job but cannot work because of your illness, you are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay from your employer.
  • If you do not have a job and cannot work because of your illness, you may be entitled to Employment and Support Allowance.
  • If you are caring for someone with cancer, you may be entitled to Carer’s Allowance.
  • You may be eligible for other benefits if you have children living at home or if you have a low household income.

Find out early what help is available to you. Speak to the social worker at your hospital, who can give you the information you need.

Free prescriptions

People being treated for cancer are entitled to apply for an exemption certificate, giving them free prescriptions for all medication, including medicine for unrelated conditions.

The certificate is valid for five years, and you can apply for it through your GP or cancer specialist.

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